Author Archives: Mirrin Raikhan

Technology for teachers: from awareness to integration

By Adi Rajan, Project Coordinator, British Council, India

How do you feel about using technology for teaching and your professional development? Do you love it? Do you hate it? Does it depend what day, which learners, what technology it is?

For those of us who are digital immigrants, integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into our teaching practice and using technology for our own professional development can seem either an impossible challenge or perhaps a distraction from ‘real teaching’. This is especially true when we are confronted with the skills our students, who are often digital natives, demonstrate with new technology, along with what might seem to be an unhealthy obsession with screens. On the other hand, using technology offers exciting opportunities to improve our teaching and new routes to professional development.

The digital landscape we find ourselves in is vast. Where do we start and what path should we follow to make the process of developing ourselves with technology manageable and meaningful within our teaching contexts? The professional practice of ‘Integrating ICT’ on the British Council’s Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Framework for teachers gives us a handy map for exploring this digital world across four different stages of development.

1.       Awareness

Setting off on a digital journey requires us to develop an awareness of what’s out there. The Internet is full of resources for professional development and classroom teaching. From blogs to e-books and webinars to online courses, you should be able to find something that meets your specific needs.

2.       Understanding

Before launching into active participation, it’s a good idea to observe interactions and gradually develop an understanding of how communication takes place in these forums. Another way of building your digital confidence is through participation in online conferences. These are hosted regularly by the British Council and teaching associations including IATEFL, OLLReN and the Virtual Round Table.

You can also sign up for a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) – for example on the FutureLearn platform – and join thousands who are learning online in a flexible but collaborative way. If you’re looking for a more personal experience, enroll in an e-moderated course. These are like MOOCs but tend to be on a smaller scale with more opportunities for completing assignments and getting feedback from a tutor. Examples include the British Council’s tutored courses on special educational needs and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL).

3.       Engagement

Now it’s time to start producing your own digital content. For instance, if you’ve been reading and becoming inspired by blogs written by other teachers, why not start your own teaching blog? My own experience with writing an ELT blog  has been extremely enriching. Blogging has made me a more reflective teacher and given me opportunities to build deep connections with teachers from around the world.

You can also use online tools to design a presentation or document on a topic that interests you or explores some insights from the classroom. To make this a richer experience, you could work with peers using an online collaborative tool. The next step is sharing this work with colleagues on social media which will enable you to contribute productively to online communities of practice.

4.       Integration

Finally, you are ready to showcase your digital experiences and help other teachers complete their development journey. Identify opportunities for giving a webinar presentation or try to organise your own. This will help you consolidate a range of technology-enabled skills and provide valuable insights to others. You can also become more actively involved by coordinating and organising events such as hosting a Twitter chat or a webinar.

The digital world that perhaps seemed so unfamiliar at first is that one that you will hopefully come to see as a source of comfort and strength, as you draw on the global connections you build to overcome challenges and achieve your professional development goals. In time, you may even begin to recognise that this technology-driven world that you initially felt you didn’t belong to, was in fact yours all along!

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Try our new Technology for Teachers series which includes easy-to-use two-page guides some tools that explored in this blog. We’ll be sharing new guides every week over the next couple of months.


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Why you need to develop assessment literacy

Written by Neenaz Ichaporia, Academic Manager, Blended Learning  

Assessment of learning or assessment for learning?

What comes to your mind when you hear the word ‘testing’? Do you imagine a large exam hall with rows of students, bending over their desks and furiously scribbling away, under a teacher’s vigilant gaze? Or you may think of a large-scale standardised test, like IELTS.

There is a tendency to consider assessment as big, standardised tests or summative, achievement tests. This traditional view is known as ‘assessment of learning’ and is used to evaluate learners, comparing them against established criteria, scales, or one another. Even the lexis we use reinforces this idea of assessment as something that is done to learners; a teacher ‘administers’ a test, while a learner ‘takes’ or ‘sits’ it.

Yet there is another increasingly popular position where assessment is learning orientated, known as ‘assessment for learning’. Rather than simply measuring a learner’s performance, assessment is used to gain valuable insights into the learning process. Both teachers and learners use feedback to improve learning and performance.

Educators increasingly acknowledge that ‘assessment of learning’ can weaken classroom practice, while using ‘assessment for learning’ can promote learner progress. Although the latter, more contemporary, view of assessment has gained popularity in pedagogy, it is unclear if it permeates our classroom practice. The fact remains that ‘assessment of learning rather than assessment for learning has preoccupied the minds of the profession for many years’.[1]

Therefore, it is increasingly important for teachers to recognise the role assessment plays in learning and teaching. In other words, we need ‘assessment literacy’, defined as ‘the knowledge about, and a comprehensive understanding of, students’ skills and ability, interpreting the collected data from the assessments, and using these interpretations to improve students’ learning and development by making appropriate decisions.’[2]

Perhaps without realising it, teachers assess learners all the time and in a variety of ways. In fact, many activities in regular classroom practice can be called assessment. For instance, this takes place each time a teacher sets a task, when learners perform that task or respond to questions, and the teacher uses their responses to make decisions about the learners’ skills.

Seen from this perspective, most teachers would benefit from training in how to use the information gained from assessment more meaningfully, provide constructive feedback to learners, and to help learners to use this feedback to build on their performance.

Assessment literacy is not only for professional examiners and teachers, but also for school leaders.  By aligning the objectives of the course with formal and informal assessment, teaching/learning practices may be made more effective. There is a further argument that learners too can benefit from assessment literacy. Such ‘sustainable assessment’ should ‘move from the exclusive domain of assessors into the hands of learners’.[3] It is argued that assessment can be used to build learners’ skills for continuing or lifelong learning, thereby building a learning society.

How can you develop your own assessment literacy?

When I started out in my career, I thought of testing in more narrow terms as ‘assessment of learning’. Gaining a better understanding of the purposes of assessment, and the principles on which good assessment is based, has been a journey of discovery. Some of this learning happened during my own professional practice, through trial and error. At other points, my understanding of assessment was sharpened by formal training.

There are several avenues available for educators looking to boost their assessment literacy and here are some relevant ones:

Free British Council resources:

  1. Start by watching the free short, animated assessment videos from the British Council. These give you an insight into some of the main topics in language assessment. Use the accompanying worksheets and answer keys for deeper knowledge.
  2. Refer to the British Council’s free comprehensive assessment glossary, which consists of hundreds of definitions of terms to do with language assessment written by practitioners with language teachers in mind.

Books and publications: 

  1. Two practical guides are: Arthur Hughes’ ‘Testing for Language Teachers’, and Marge Scherer’s ‘On Formative Assessment: Readings from Educational Leadership’.
  2. Browse the British Council’s Assessment Research Publications. Other reports that detail the main issues include these  two from the Learning and Skills Development Agency and the OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

Paid association membership:  

  1. Become a member of TEASIG (the Testing, Evaluation and Assessment Special Interest Group) of IATEFL and connect with fellow professionals worldwide.

[1] Jones, C. (2005 p. 1). Assessment for Learning. London, UK: Learning and Skills Development Agency: accessed at http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/7800/1/AssessmentforLearning.pdf

[2] Coombe, C. (2018 p. 10). An A to Z of Second Language Assessment: How Language Teachers Understand Assessment Concepts. London, UK: British Council.

[3] David Boud (2010 p. 151). Sustainable Assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22:2, 151-167, DOI: 10.1080/713695728

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