Category Archives: Teacher education and development

Explorations: Teaching and Learning English in India

India has a long tradition of educational research dating back to the pre-independence period which has included the foundation and development of national and state agencies including the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERT). However, as David Graddol (2010: 98), for example, has pointed out, the results of this research have not always reached the wider world and India may have been under-represented in the international academic community. British Council India places considerable emphasis on encouraging and supporting educational research and a key strand of that work, for a number of years, was the English Language Teaching Partnerships (ELTReP) Award programme.

The ELTRePs programme ran from 2012 to 2016, with the aim of facilitating high quality, innovative research to benefit the learning and teaching of English in India and to improve the access of ELT policy makers and professionals from India, the United Kingdom and the global ELT community to that research. Researchers on this programme have been supported in undertaking explorations in a wide range of contexts. All writers are practitioners in the field of English language teaching and learning in India, whether teachers, lecturers, educational department personnel or in other roles that involve day-to-day contact with the teaching and learning of English.

Our new publication series Explorations: Teaching and Learning English in India brings together thirty three papers which are describe the research undertaken, and present findings and recommendations which we hope will be of benefit to a wider audience. The papers are presented in a series of eleven issues, each containing three papers and each addressing one of the professional practices detailed in the British Council framework for continuing professional development. Topics include a focus on understanding learners, managing resources and the use of information technology, assessing learners, taking responsibility for continuing professional development and using inclusive and multilingual approaches. Each paper reflects the creativity, detailed awareness of context and practical suggestions of the wide range of writers, from different backgrounds and working in different situations. They present results which in each case are innovative and thought-provoking. The papers deal in different ways with the teaching and learning of English in India today and offer suggestions on how to meet these challenges.

Twenty-two of the papers have been edited by Professor Brian Tomlinson, Honorary Visiting Professor, University of Liverpool, TESOL Professor, Anaheim University. A further eleven papers were edited by Andy Keedwell, Senior Academic Manager, British Council India. Both editors worked in collaboration with the writers themselves.

Issue 1 looks at the professional practice of understanding learners and in particular the needs of students, especially for future employability. Barasha Borah makes suggestions on how a more communicative, task-based approach can be used to develop students’ speaking skills for students in secondary schools. Seemita Mohanty looks at ways in which the motivation and self-confidence of young people can be increased. Sutapa Chakravarty investigates how a range of multiple intelligences can be addressed inside and outside the primary school.

We hope you enjoy Explorations: Teaching and Learning English in India Issue 1 and find it helpful for the context you work in.

Issue 2 will be released in August 2017.

Graddol, D. (2010) English next India: the future of English in India. London: British Council.

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview: Dr Neena Jha

Dr. Neena Jha is an educationist who has traversed both rural and urban landscapes as part of her work with various schools, universities and NGOs. She has mentored children from rural backgrounds, conducted various capacity building programmes and teacher-training workshops and recently worked in developing public libraries into digitally inclusive spaces. Switching from teaching Commerce in Delhi University, she moved to teaching English and communication skills formally as well as non-formally. Currently she is an independent consultant engaging with the education and development sectors. Find out more about Neena’s journey here.

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT.
Growing up in multiple cities of India gave me ample insights into English being spoken in all its regional senses and savours. It fascinated me to absorb various intonations and mother tongue influences on this globally unifying language.
While pursuing my doctorate in public finance, I taught commerce to undergraduates in Delhi University in 1989. The ELT journey began after my relocation to Champaran, Bihar post marriage in 1991.The kids here were good at Maths and Sciences but struggled with English. They felt alienated from the language despite studying in English medium instruction schools. That set me to shift gears to ELT. I started to impart English lessons and later joined a missionary school as a teacher of English. Apart from textbook lessons, I encouraged children to interact in English in everyday situations, making a conscious effort not to negate learnings from their mother tongues. I used their home language/s as a resource for cross-linguistic linkages. Thereafter in Patna, I conducted English communication classes for students, professionals and government functionaries who had had their education in Hindi or other regional languages. My assignment with the World Bank on the Bihar Teacher Education project recently, reinforced the conviction that enhancing teacher effectiveness adds to improving student learning outcomes resulting in robust education systems.

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Understanding educational policies and practice’?
It goes without saying that our own education has to be ongoing. Both proficiency and professional awareness are important. To keep abreast of the developments in policies relating to educational practices in India, I would recommend that teachers visit the NCERT portal. Teachers may also visit the websites of other non- government organisations like British Council, BBC, CSF EdMonitor and Pratham to raise their awareness about recent trends in education and access resources. Being aware of the updates in educational policies and practices can be valuable pegs for ELT professionals to hinge their classes on and keep them attuned to the national educational goals. As outlined in British Council CPD Framework for teachers, teachers should be able to locate relevant information about educational policies and practice at multiple levels. However this is still a challenge despite such phenomenal growth in online content and resources.
We, then, should adopt such professional and pedagogical practices that go hand in hand with the policies relating to various aspects of our profile ranging from goals of education to access to education. We have to remember to customise them in tandem with local learner needs and aspirations. We also need to consider the changed circumstances in which English language is learned and used in this era of globalisation to make it accepted and acceptable.

3. What educational policies do you think teachers need to be aware of to develop their understanding of classroom practices? How can teachers find out more about these policies?
The teacher in the classroom is responsible for aligning the vision of the stated policies with ground situation of learners. The goals of education have to converge with a child’s holistic development- physical, mental, moral, emotional, social and spiritual. NCF 2005 is a key document that teachers need to be thoroughly familiar with in order to enhance their understanding of the key principles that should guide their classroom practice. Also reading of online resources come in handy. For instance, the CREATE- collaboration, relevance, evidence, alignment, transparency, empowerment approach to ELT policies and practices makes a lot of sense to ELT facilitators. The recent insights from linguistics, psychology, and associated disciplines have also provided a principled foundation to revitalise curricular practices for teachers.  They all point to a more empirically grounded approach to ELT that would assist to supplement our content for curriculum and pedagogic purposes. In ELT roles, let us strive to create multi-linguals who can enrich more languages than one. This methodology, I feel, would address growing apprehensions of regional language and culture getting endangered with the adoption of a new language. In addition, the pedagogic code of moving from the known to the unknown shall come into play in this way.

4. What key points from these policies would you like to highlight for teachers of English?
For teachers taking language classes, I think it is important that they are aware of the language policy governing their respective region and state. Moreover they must be in sync with ICT and integrate them in their classrooms to strengthen learning processes. Since language has a direct bearing on literacy, that is another relevant area for the teacher to keep in mind. Teachers are in a position to achieve national literacy goals as also usher in equality and inclusion in the communities they work with. Another focal point would be to sensitise students about the importance of implications of language and vocabulary. Yet another key thing would be to empower the learner by equipping them with better communication skills that would augment their confidence and competence in other disciplines too. Teachers of English can foster peace skills in children by avoiding use of aggressive or violent language, thereby contributing to mitigate the flaring gap between purpose and processes of education. Instilling gender sensitivity in their classrooms is another lifelong skill that would help towards realising a goal as fundamental as equality. The young students would grow up to respect and celebrate diversity, practise tolerance and value peace. Education would thus serve the ultimate purpose of harmonising and humanising its stakeholders.

5. How do teachers use their learning from these policies to help them in their classroom practice?
A nuanced understanding of these policies enables teachers to achieve much beyond defined course objectives. The NCERT position paper on English gives a simple yet effective suggestion about having print-rich environments, especially to enable pre-literacy learning. Putting up charts, blurbs, signboards, and even graffiti in the classroom helps familiarize the elementary learner with the school environment, and sows seeds of early education. Moreover making smaller groups in the classroom and organising activities like role plays and radio shows not just makes learning fun for students but also facilitates the teacher in knowing and assessing individual and team skills better. Another important takeaway from policy documents like the NCF 2005 would be establishing co-curricular and cross-curricular linkages. While taking up P.B. Shelley’s Ode to the West Wind in class for instance, the teacher could compare the use of imagery and symbolism with John Keats’ Ode to Autumn. The phenomenon of the westerly from geography and the process of water cycle from natural sciences may be referred to for integrated and reflective learning. Turning every lesson into an experience of its own, rather than merely reading and interpreting it, goes a long way in helping students connect with the subject in particular and with life outside the classroom in general.

A few other resources that teachers may find useful are:

  1. British Council online teaching resources
  2. New methods of teaching on Pratham blog
  3. ELT section of OUP website

I shall be happy to hear from you at

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview: Nicky Hockly

Nicky HocklyThis week in our #ELTHeroes series, we are talking to Nicky Hockly. Nicky is the Director of Pedagogy of The Consultants-E, an award-winning online training and development organisation. She is an international plenary speaker, and gives workshops and training courses for teachers all over the world. She has written several prize-winning methodology books about new technologies in language teaching, many of them with co-author Gavin Dudeney. The latest of these books are Focus on Learning Technologies (2016), and ETpedia Technology (forthcoming 2017). Nicky lives in Barcelona, and is a technophobe turned technophile. You can find out more about Nicky on The Consultants-E website here, including a complete list of her publications.

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT.
I started teaching English to adults and young learners in a language school in Spain in 1987, and got involved in teacher training a few years later after doing my DELTA. I started teaching online ten years later in 1997, when I joined a consortium of Spanish and Latin American universities offering one of the first fully online MA in ELT degree programmes. I joined as the Academic Director of the MA programme, but also taught online, and mentored other online tutors. This year (2017) marks 20 years of teaching online for me!
In 2003 my colleague Gavin Dudeney and I set up our online training and development consultancy, The Consultants-E. I’m the Director of Pedagogy of The Consultants-E, and we specialise in consultancy work with educational institutions who would like to work with online and blended learning, and educational technologies. We also provide f2f and online training to help teachers integrate technology into their language teaching. And that’s where I am now.
I also do quite a lot of writing. So far, I’ve authored or co-authored 8 methodology books for English language teachers about how to integrate a range of technologies into the classroom. I also write regular columns about integrating technologies into ELT for English Teaching Professional, and for the English Language Teaching Journal (ELTJ).

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Promoting 21stcentury skills’? 
As I’m sure readers are aware, there are plenty of excellent free opportunities for professional development available on the Internet. There are MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), webinars, and professional communities that teachers can join in order to explore 21st century skills in more detail. Some online professional communities that I especially recommend are the IATEFL Learning Technologies Special Interest Group (LTSIG), the Webheads in Action group, and of course the British Council’s Teach English in India Facebook page. Probably the most important piece of advice I can give to teachers is this: once you feel you understand the topic better, and have some ideas about how to work with 21st-century skills in your classroom, try out some teaching ideas with learners. You can then can share your experiences – both triumphs and challenges – with an online professional development group to get feedback, suggestions, and further ideas. Developing professional practice in 21st century skills means not just knowing more about it, but integrating it into practice, reflecting on the experience, and then refining your practice based on those reflections and feedback.

3. Do you think promoting 21st century skills is a real movement or just the latest educational fad? What makes you say that?
There is no doubt that our increasingly digital society requires new skills, and these skills tend to be lacking in traditional educational curricula. Ministries of Education in most countries in the world now include some element of 21st century skills in educational curricula for primary, secondary and even tertiary education – at least on paper. This responds to the need of countries to support the development of fully functioning digital citizens, and the very future of those countries depends on this. So, although the term ‘21st century skills’ does sound rather fad-like, once these fundamental educational needs are integrated into curricula at all levels of education, the term itself should hopefully become redundant. At the moment, it’s a useful term to help raise teachers’, students’, and even parents’ awareness of the importance of these skills in education.

4. Why is it important for teachers to understand and develop 21st century skills among learners? How likely will it affect learners in the future, if they don’t have these skills?
21st century skills are increasingly a feature of the modern workplace. If schools do not support the development of these skills for learners, where else are they going to acquire them? The skills of creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving and so on are obviously desirable in the workplace. Also, in our increasingly technologically driven world, literacy is not just being able to read and write in the traditional sense, but knowing how to understand and manipulate a range of digital media. Hence the importance too of digital literacies. Students who don’t have these skills are clearly at a disadvantage, not only when it comes to employment prospects, but also when it comes to being a responsible and fully empowered digital citizen.

5. Which do you think is the best way to teach the 21st century skills, within a school subject OR separately? Why do you think so?
I think integrating 21st century skills is far more effective than trying to teach them as some sort of stand-alone or separate subject. 21st century skills cut across curricular content – they are not related to only one subject in school. Trying to teach 21st century skills as a separate subject immediately divorces it from everything else, and makes it feel less applicable to daily life. Integrating these skills across the curriculum gives students plenty of exposure to and practice with developing the skills.
For example, an effective way to integrate a range of 21st century skills into school subjects, is to have learners work together in small groups of 3 or 4 to produce a digital artefact such as a podcast or a blog post, explaining the key points they have learnt about a certain subject: they could recount a historical event as part of a history lesson, or explain a process like photosynthesis as part of a science lesson, or share information about a country for a geography lesson.  Working together in small groups on a digital project like this integrates a number of key 21st century skills, namely creativity, critical thinking, leadership and management skills, communication and collaboration, and of course digital literacy.
The key to integrating 21st century skills successfully is that teachers receive the necessary training and support from their institutions. It’s simply not feasible to just tell teachers to ‘teach 21st century skills’, when they may be unsure exactly what these are, why they’re important, or how to integrate them into their existing classroom practice.

6. In what ways can teachers integrate 21st century skills when teaching English?
Because of my background in educational technology, I’m most interested in the digital literacies component of 21st century skills.
As described above, having students work together on digital projects is an excellent way to integrate a range of 21st century skills into one main activity. In case of the English language classroom, students can create digital projects on any number of topics. For example, if you are working on the topic of food with your students, how about getting them to produce a multimedia online poster of their favourite meal, with images and text? Multimedia poster tools like Glogster enable learners to embed images and video, so they could find videos on YouTube to embed, or even film their own videos if they own a simple mobile phone. Working in small groups requires students to communicate and collaborate together. It also requires good time management skills, and knowing how to work effectively with others (a key leadership skill). They also get the chance to be very creative in their creation of a visual poster, and critical thinking is required in deciding what information to include in their poster, as well as what information to leave out. Finally, the creation of a digital online poster students need to work with a range of media (images, text, video), and integrate these into an effective overall presentation, so digital literacy is developed at the same time.
I wrote a book called Digital Literacies with my colleagues Gavin Dudeney and Mark Pegrum (Routledge, 2013), in which we look specifically at how digital literacies can be operationalised in the classroom. This seems to be the biggest challenge for teachers – although everyone talks about the importance of 21st century skills and digital literacies, there is very little practical information out there to help teachers actually work on these skills with their students in the classroom. The book has plenty of activities focused on developing students’ (and by extension teachers’!) digital literacies, and you can also find some ideas in a series of blog posts about digital literacies on my professional blog, E-moderation Station (see also the links at the end of the blog post). I’d encourage teachers reading this to try out some of the ideas with their students!

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview: Dr Anand Mahanand

Dr Anand Mahanand has been a Professor at the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad working in the field of materials development for learners and teachers in English and multi-lingual contexts and has authored and edited books and articles in related areas. At present he is Dean, Publication and All India Coordinator, District Centre Scheme, an outreach programme of EFLU. Find out more about him on

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT.Anand Mahanad

I have been in the Department of Materials Development at the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad for nearly twenty years.  I have been teaching courses for teachers and teacher educators.  I have also developed materials for the teachers and learners of English.  My research interests include English in Multilingual Contexts, English for Specific Purposes and Language through Literature.  I have guided research projects, published books and articles in these areas.  Some of my important publications  in ELT include English through Folktales, English for Academic and Professional Skills,  Learning to Learn: Study Skills in English, Diversity: Tales for the Multilingual Classroom and  Multilingual  Education in India: The Case for English. I believe that English is a powerful tool and it has potential to empower learners. At the same time, learners’ languages and forms of culture are as important as English so these should be integrated with English language education. That’s the reason why my research and publications focus on the use of learners’ languages and forms of culture

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Using multilingual approaches’?

My advice would be to integrate learners’ languages and forms of culture with English language teaching.  Teachers should have a liking for learners’ first language/s and learners should be allowed to use their languages in the classroom. Learners’ first languages are usually considered inferior to standard languages. This attitude needs to go. Teachers could use learners’ first languages as inputs before the actual tasks. For instance, before giving them tasks on writing, learners can be engaged in discussion on the topic of the writing task. This will help them to translate their knowledge into English. Learners’ languages can also be used for giving instructions, suggestions and encouragement. While it is not expected from teachers to know all languages spoken by their learners, they should not prevent learners from using them.

3. What are some of the benefits of using multilingual approaches while teaching ?

There are many benefits of using multilingual approaches. Firstly, learners feel accepted in the class and they can relate to things they are being taught. Learners come to the class with a lot of resources in the forms of stories, songs, ideas about plants, flowers, festivals and so on in their first languages.  These resources should be exploited by teachers for teaching and learning as this will make learning easier. Secondly, learners’ languages and forms of culture are sustained.  It is important as some opine that with the emergence of English our local languages are threatened. Thirdly, such integrating approaches help learners in learning peaceful co-existence maintaining one’s heritage and respecting others.

4. How can teachers deal with a class of learners who speak different first languages?

As said earlier, it is not expected of a teacher to know and use all languages spoken by their learners, but it is possible for a teacher to allow the learners to use them in class in a judicious manner. I have taught such learners.  I used to make groups according to different language users. They would discuss in their own languages first. Then translate that into English and present it before the class. Learners had fun as well as learning. They also took interest in learning one another’s languages. Some did pick up certain words while they also had an opportunity to practise the target language.

5. What are some of the challenges teachers might face while using multilingual approaches to teach English in their classroom? How can they overcome these challenges?

One of the challenges could be a tendency to use too much of mother tongue, which might defeat the purpose. Judicious use is advocated. Also many teachers translate from English to mother tongue. Actually, the process should be from mother tongue to English. If it is done in a reverse way, it will not serve the purpose. Learners will learn mother tongue at the cost of English. Another challenge is that administrators and parents may not like the idea of using other languages in an English class as they think that learning local languages means going backward and it will affect the learning of English. They have to be convinced by showing good results in English as well as in the first languages. Also having a class of learners who speak different mother tongues could be challenging too, but as stated in 2 and 3 above, this should be treated more as a stepping stone rather than a stumbling block in the process of learning as they bring with them rich linguistic and cultural resources that teachers can exploit meaningfully.

6. Can you share some assessment techniques or ideas that would help including learners’ linguistic backgrounds or the languages they speak at the time of assessment?

Have a progressive view of assessment.  Understand where and why a learner has used mother tongue in certain places. For instance, learners may use their first language if they do not know a particular word or a grammar structure. Instead of arbitrarily terming it wrong, a teacher should try to understand the problem so that it can be mended. Since the teaching is multilingual, assessment should also be following multilingual approaches. For example, in case of young learners, rubrics/instructions could be given in their first language/s and the main task could be in the target language. This helps learners understand instructions easily and they know what exactly is expected of them. Translation of texts could be one of the criteria for older learners. Using multilingual dictionary and assessing them on their use could be another.

7. What three tips would you like to give teachers who wish to begin using multilingual approaches to teach English in their classrooms?

These tips would be -

  • have a liking for the learners’ first language and forms of culture. This will help you build rapport with your learners
  • have more of group activities. These will allow learners to share ideas in their own language/s freely before they do the same in English. This will help them understand/explain complex concepts and also make them more sensitive towards each other’s culture and languages and build rapport
  • encourage translation. Include translated versions of the same texts
  • and one more – encourage learners to bring their resources to the classroom as mentioned earlier and make use of them through allied skills like art, craft, songs, story and so on.


Share via email

Hornby scholarship: a learning experience

IMG-20161227-WA0022It was one of those familiar and cold wintery December mornings in 2014 when I stumbled upon a British Council Facebook post inviting applications for an A.S. Hornby Educational Trust scholarship to study for Masters in ELT at the University of Warwick in the UK. I knew that learning to teach was my true love, but having taught ELT for nearly a decade, I had convinced myself that there was nothing left to be learnt. So it didn’t really make any sense at that time to apply for the scholarship. However, many of the Hornby Scholars who I had known for many a year were able to persuade me that the scholarship was life-changing. So more out of curiosity than anything else I sent in my scholarship application and quite fortunately won it.

Fast forward to October 2015 and I was at the University of Warwick. A new world of ELT had unfolded before me. My only reaction to the course was that of utter fascination. The people at the university were experts who taught brilliantly and like the kind of teachers I would one day want to become. ‘This is how a course should be taught,’ I told myself. It also didn’t take too long for me to have these uncomfortable and hard-to-deal-with moments of realisation of my limited awareness of the world of ELT. Back in India, I was used to feeling competent, knowledgeable and accomplished. I wasn’t used to feeling as if I’d been living in the dark ages. With each passing day, I saw my limited understanding of ELT break into smaller and smaller pieces.


Front row, second person on the right: Martin Lamb, Professor, University of Leeds with the 2015-16 Hornby scholars

Talk about a paradigm shift: the scholarship has reignited the endeavour in me to never cease to learn and it has filled the knowledge gap that I never knew existed. Although applying for the Hornby Scholarship or studying an MA course in the UK seemed like an insignificant event on that seemingly ordinary cold December morning in 2014, in retrospect, it has been one of the most transformative moments in my life as a teacher. I look at the year spent at Warwick as an incredibly humbling experience filled with exciting opportunities to learn. The course has helped me take a hard look at my own teaching practices. It has rekindled the fire in me to constantly look for better ways to reinvent my teaching. The course has given me skills I will always be able to use both personally and professionally and for that I am forever indebted to the A S Hornby Educational Trust for their scholarship.

Written by Allwyn D’Costa, a 2015-16 Hornby scholar.

Share via email

#ELTHeroes Interview: Phil Dexter

This time in our #ELTHeroes series, we are talking to Phil Dexter. Phil is the English Language Teacher Development Adviser for the British Council.  Phil is currently responsible for development of the workshop modules for the British Council Teaching for Success CPD framework approach and, in particular, on special educational needs and inclusive learning. Phil has a Master’s Degree in English language studies from the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne and a Diploma in Special Educational Needs. Phil is passionate about ensuring that every learner has the opportunity to show their ‘special talents’ in aspiring and achieving to the highest standards.

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT. Phil dexter

Before joining the world of ELT I worked in a huge ‘pensions factory’ in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. This was the kind of work you either stay in for your working life or you go for the ‘great escape’. ELT was my route out of a safe but less than interesting job. I completed my usual CELTA type initial training course and then, ‘unusually’ went straight into a Masters in English language studies. This was a correct route for me as it gave me time to think what I wanted to do and more importantly understanding of ELT.

From there my journey began…..Seven years in Bulgaria working at an English language medium school and then managing the programme for three years, two years in the Czech republic and pre-service initial teacher training at a pedagogical faculty where I developed lots of understanding and skills about observation and mentoring followed by four years in Slovakia supporting in-service teacher training. From there, though staying in ELT, I changed track working on what was called the British Council Peacekeeping English Project in Croatia and Libya which was interesting – to say the least – working with militaries and especially the military in Libya!  In between Croatia and Libya I worked on an interesting vocational training project in Saudi Arabia. In almost all these projects and countries there was a theme I developed around approaches to independent learning and set up self-access centres.

In 2009 I had the opportunity to return to the UK with responsibility as Global Teacher Development Adviser (my current role) mainly in developing courses and resources for primary and secondary and advising our countries globally on professional development. I actually travel more now than I did when I worked outside the UK and have done lots of work across the world. This then takes me on my journey into special educational needs and inclusive learning. I suppose I’ve always felt that teaching and learning needs to be differentiated to different ways that we all need to learn and also the importance of recognising the rights of every learner to achieve at the best of potential as an equality and quality issue. I have retrained and qualified in special educational needs and am pleased that I can make contribution to this field.

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Using inclusive practices’?

Using inclusive practices is about good teaching and learning and understanding your learners. The first thing I would say is look at what you and other teachers are doing already. I am certain that there are lots of ‘inclusive practices’ in what you are doing. Look at what you think is working well and do more of that, especially ways that you are engaging with your learners as that shows understanding of your learners and is likely to make the biggest impact on their learning.

Secondly, inclusive practices is less about what models of teaching and learning we have in schools and much more about what teachers and learners do.   My work is very much connected with special educational needs (SEN) and my strong advice for teachers is not to be engaged with a medical approach and diagnosis of SEN. This type of support is for professionals to do – whether it’s a diagnosis of someone identified as being on the autism spectrum or having dyslexia, social and emotional challenges, attention deficit hyperactive needs or needs associated with mental health. Of course, a diagnosis may be helpful for everyone – parents, learners, teachers, schools and can help understanding of where learning challenges come from. However, as teachers the focus is on learning needs. This is what we teachers are trained to do. These needs might be expressed through different things that we can notice as a teacher. Is it connected to certain ways learners go on, take part in or complete tasks? Is it connected to ways our learners interact with others? Is it about following instructions connected with memory? What can we notice about behaviour?

A colleague of mine, Marie Delaney, gave some advice recently on a useful way of approaching understanding our learners’ needs, which includes asking questions such as:

  • What do I notice about what my learners are doing?
  • What is interesting about what I notice?
  • How can I change what I do to improve my teaching and to support their learning?

Asking and answering these questions will take us into all the skills and knowledge we need in developing inclusive practices.

Thirdly, good CPD practice is very much about ‘try and learn’. This is equally applicable to using inclusive practices. Try out what you learn on courses in your classrooms keeping in mind what will be meaningful for your classes and individual learners. Adapt for your learners needs, try things in different ways and share ideas with colleagues. Something that works one day may not work the next day so be patient but persistent. Very few learners, if any, do not want to learn – it’s about find the right route(s) for everyone. Above all have high aspirations for everyone.

3. In what ways can teachers find out whether or not their classrooms are inclusive?

Asking and answering the questions on what teachers can notice will begin to answer the question. One of the main issues we all face is that classroom learning itself is often one of the barriers to inclusiveness. Usually our curriculum, our textbooks and too often our methodology is one where, though we talk about our learners being different, our practice has learners doing the same or similar activities. For some learners, classrooms are a good place to learn but for others they are suffering in silence, are just not connected with what is happening in the classroom or just bored. Part of the reason for this – and this is not to blame teachers who are doing the best they can – is that much of classroom learning is abstract and we need to make our lessons and classroom more concrete and meaningful where understanding, and therefore, meaningful learning can happen. Rather than an over focus on whether our classrooms are not inclusive I would concentrate on the positive – how to make then more inclusive.

How can we do this? As with everything in learning there are no ‘magic dust’ answers – but there are solutions.

A key issue is that all learners are working towards the same learning outcomes – whether this is working on learning some item of grammar, vocabulary in context, some topic, a story or whatever. We all have learning preferences (this is not about learning styles) and preferred ways of working. We need to think about how we can maximise these preferences in supporting learning.

i. Focus on what learners can do rather than what they can’t do. Do more of that as this will build confidence and promote positive learning. Nothing succeeds like success!

ii. Scaffold and differentiate learning – scaffolding puts ideas in context and structure to support learning. Start from what learners know already and build on that – this is a form of scaffolding. Differentiation is about presenting, practising, production and assessing learning in a variety of ways – through text, visual, auditory, kinaesthetic. Again this is not about locking learners onto specific learning styles but presenting teaching in a variety of ways. We all use our senses in life and let’s use them in learning.

iii. Take this a stage further – give options on how learners might present their ideas – through text, a visual presentation such as a mind map, more oral than in writing, using technology, through building a 3D model and/or explaining through a medium of the learner’s choice. This is called differentiation by response and learners are basically doing the differentiation.

iv. Group learners not according to ‘ability’ that may prejudge outcomes but in different ways – gender, colour or style of hair, items of clothing, special interests, combination of different preferences in same group etc.

v. Take the same approach with assessment. We want to test knowledge, understanding and skills – how they demonstrate that can be optional.

4. What can teachers facing challenges such as large classes and syllabus constraints do to make their classrooms more inclusive? 

Of course, all the above is easier said than done – especially in large busy classrooms but through ideas like the above, you will be able to see how learners are involved. It’s important to realise and understand what you can change and impact on and what you can’t. Work on what you can change.

i. In a large class you may not be able to move desks or other furniture that is fixed, but you can usually move people even if this means just turning round to work with someone.  Can you change where you seat people or how they do an activity on different days?

ii. The syllabus may be fixed but can you use these variety of options mentioned above (and others) in how learners work and respond?

iii. In a very large class you cannot get everyone presenting in whole group/class all the time, but can you use group work much more and choose a few groups each lesson/day to feedback to the whole group?

iv. Can the learners assess each other from time to time – this requires practice and understanding criteria but can be very powerful. This is called an assessment for learning approach.

v.  A learner’s behaviour can be challenging and difficult for all sorts of reasons. Remember you may not be able to change a learner’s behaviour but you can change your attitude to their behaviour and help with your own wellbeing.

5. How can teachers move beyond the notion of inclusion that is only associated with learners with special needs?

This is a really important question. Special Needs in itself is not only about ‘weak learners’. There are many learners who are identified as ‘gifted and talented’ but are under performing due to be under challenged and underwhelmed situations in a class. These are the learners who may finish quickly and then are bored. They require what is called curriculum enrichment. This could be achieved through more or very challenging activities, high interest content, ways of working such as seeking out more information through various media, inviting subject specialist guest speakers or arranging visits to businesses or universities where lots can be learnt.

Moving on from SEN the answer is also about understanding access and engagement. Access is about getting the learners into the class and school. This could be about ensuring that girls can be in school. It may be children from marginalised groups who don’t see the benefit of education or it may be ensuring there isn’t a high dropout rate from school. Engagement is about what learners actually do in class and school. Teachers can ensure that the lesson is engaging, stimulating and participatory and leads to good outcomes. In some respects forget all about SEN and ensure that the focus is on learning needs. We have high aspirations for all our learners and in that sense we treat everyone as special. If we feel included then we are included.

6. What tips do you have for teachers to help them cater to the needs of a mixed-ability classroom?

I would try and move away from the concept of mixed ability and towards one of multi-level. All learners have a mixed profile of strengths and areas less developed. A few learners have a very strong profile in all skills but some are more likely to achieve in some more than others.

Without repeating the ideas above ensure you group learners in different ways so that a mix of strengths and areas to develop are present in groups where everyone can share their skills. Do activities that are multilevel. One example is to ask the class (not everyone, of course, in a large class) to draw some items on the board – a house, a river, trees, people working/playing, animals. You can then work with the drawings, for example, use the vocabulary, create a story, work on prepositions, ask when the scene takes place – last week, now, next week – etc. Ask simple what, where and more why questions linked to critical thinking skills. In this way everyone works with the same text but can be doing different activities at different levels of complexity. Learners have actually decided the text, which helps to increase motivation as it ‘is theirs’. And by the way, you don’t need to spend hours preparing the resources – just good valuable thinking time on how to use the visual/drawing text. That’s an example of inclusion for both teachers and learners.

As I say above – it’s all about trying and seeing what works with your learners and with other teachers. Have fun experimenting. There is no perfect solution on inclusion other than the contexts that you and your learners create themselves. All of this will help us meet the objectives of our curriculum, syllabus and lesson plans that we all need to meet. In the UK we use the term that teachers work with ‘best endeavours’.

Good luck and make time for yourself in your busy teacher’s life.

Find out more about using inclusive practices and creating an inclusive learning experience for English language learners with specific needs.

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview – Tessa Woodward

Next in our #ELTHeroes series, we’re talking to Tessa Woodward – Tessa was a teacher, teacher trainer, and the Professional Development Co-ordinator at Hilderstone College, Broadstairs, Kent, UK until August 2016. She edits The Teacher Trainerjournal for Pilgrims, Canterbury, UK. She is a Past President and International Ambassador of IATEFL and founded the IATEFL Special Interest Group for Teacher Trainers (now the SIG T Ed/TT). She is the author of many books and articles for language teachers and for teacher trainers. Her latest book, with Seth Lindstromberg, ‘Something to Say’, (2014, Helbling Languages) was short-listed for an English Speaking Union prize. Tessa is also the founder of The Fair List.

Tessa photo May 2014

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT.

I did a lot of other things before ELT. I did not always think, ’Oh I want to be a teacher!’ I didn’t like school very much until the last two years!  So, as I set off learning and earning, I did some restaurant and hotel work, some farm help, worked in the National Union of Students, in the Martin Luther King Foundation. Then, loving English and the idea of meeting people from different countries, I retrained as an EFL teacher for adult learners. Adults because I wanted to work with people who had chosen to be in the classroom and who could leave it at any moment if they didn’t like what was going on!

I then got a grounding for two years in a language school in London with wonderful colleagues. I wanted to feel I knew roughly what I was doing before venturing off to try to be of use to language learners in other countries. At that stage, I imagined I would be a teacher for just a few years!

Many years later, I had taught in Japan and Switzerland. I had got the chance to be an in-service teacher trainer at a company in Japan and had, very deliberately, stayed language teaching at the same time. Then I worked on Certificate and Diploma courses. I started to do workshops, conference presentations and modules on university MA courses. I had had no idea, when I started that such things would become possible!   I branched out into writing and editing, while still always keeping my feet firmly in the language and teacher training classrooms.

I now find, much to my surprise, that, some decades later, I seem to have had a career in ELT!  I have been editing The Teacher Trainer Journal for thirty years and teaching and training for much longer than that! So, in retrospect, I can see I have had a career in TEFL. I certainly didn’t expect to have one!

2.  What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Taking responsibility for professional development’?

I like the advice that Manisha Dak gave in the video for this week on the British Council Teach English in India Facebook page – ’Look inside, look outside and then look inside again!’ Very neat!

I also totally agree with all the things that Silvana Richardson said in her interview  about working on the English language. This is just as important for those who have English as a first language as for first language speakers of other languages!

It was nice to read Debbie Candy’s interview too . Her thoughts on experimenting with different resources are great!

So, to avoid repetition of points made by Manisha, Silvana and Debbie, I will look at another aspect!

We may well be in the classroom for a long time, for years! Possibly, when we turn around and realise it, for decades! So, we need to take responsibility for keeping our own strength and stamina up, retaining a sense of humour, and thinking how we are going to keep interested in our work over time.

The basics are that we need to eat and sleep well and get some exercise. Taking care of ourselves, including our voices, is important. It gives us a solid basis from which to spend our energy with our learners. If we are not strong we cannot be useful to our colleagues and learners.

Having interests outside school can be very helpful too. Without doubt, whatever these interests are…whether singing, making things, watching films and/or doing sports. They will feed into our work somehow and also keep our spirits up during the hard times. For example, being in a choir strengthens our breathing and voice muscles, enjoying motor racing gives us a feel for fast pace and zip, enjoying films and literature makes us aware of story arcs for texts.

We also need to remember that we can’t learn everything immediately. We can’t be good at everything or can’t be the right teacher for absolutely every one of our students. Some parts of our work may come naturally to us but other parts take effort over time before they improve. We cannot be perfect any more than our students can. This kind of compassion for ourselves, and for our students who are struggling to learn English, is important in my view.

3. What simple things can teachers do in their day-to-day routine to help them with their professional development?

I think it is useful to break down our day-to-day work into separate tasks such as: attracting students’ attention, calling the register, presenting new words, checking comprehension, setting a task, grouping students, monitoring pair work, correcting homework and so on. You will think of a million other tasks to list, tasks we do every day.

Next, we can call to mind how many ways we know of doing a task. We can then set ourselves the task of learning one new way to do that task every few months. For example, let’s say that we usually attract our students’ attention by clapping our hands and saying loudly, ‘Listen everybody!’ Fine! (Although with big classes that could strain the voice a bit and drain the energy!) But it’s fine. We can however do it a different way for a while. We can raise our hand and teach students to stop talking and raise their hands too as soon as they see our or a class mate’s hand go up. When there is a forest of hands up usually most ‘late-noticers’ will eventually stop talking too. Once we and the students have learned this method, we can mix it up with our first method and then add a third, say tapping on the board with a board pen or ringing a little pleasant sounding hand bell. Gradually we work on picking up new ways of doing each of our many day-to-day tasks. We can pick up these new ways by asking colleagues what they do, by peer observation, from teacher resource books and web sites, from watching teachers in classes where we are the learners and so on.

By adding little new ways of carrying out our tasks, we don’t get bored. We gather a full repertoire of options to use. We have both routine and change and development. And our students get some variety too as we gain more ways of working. Once we have a good set of options for our many tasks, it will draw us into thinking about why this or that way of working seems to work better in this or that situation. Hey Presto! We have become thoughtful methodologists!

4. What three top things should teachers keep in mind while making a professional development plan for themselves?

I would suggest we could all consider the following:

  • Be realistic. ….about the time, energy and resources we have available. Don’t commit, in a moment of wild enthusiasm, to a rash, complete change of all manner of aspects of our work. Better to start small and simple and see how it goes. We can always scale up later if things are working well.
  • Be creative. What do we love about life? Music? Dance? Fun? Poetry? Jokes? Watching films? Horse racing? Being outside? What job would you like to be doing if you weren’t a teacher? An artist? A vet? An accountant? What aspect of any of those likes and loves can we sneak into our work as a teacher?
  • Share our plans. Talk things over with sympathetic colleagues, family, friends and mentors. We can let people know we are on the move in term of our professional interests. that we are up for change and development.  At the very least we will have interesting conversations as a result. But we might get some new ideas or even some people to try out new things with. As Debby suggested, collaborating is good!
  • Don’t forget the learners. Sorry…I have four things! Don’t forget that although we are concentrating on ourselves, quite rightly, for a while as we plan our PD, the other half of the same coin is always, always, always to understand our colleagues and learners and help them in their efforts to achieve.

5. What useful resources/links would you suggest that teachers can read/access to help them understand how to go about their own professional development?

If you are an online type of person, I honestly think the British Council website is great!

If you are more of a paper person, then try Sylvia Ashton-Warner’s book ‘Teacher’. This book rekindles the fire of experimentation and the vibrant desire to find ways to help learners. That fire is a key to a PD motivation. Perhaps the British Council could get permission to use extracts on their site for reading and discussion? 

And if I might mention it, I am currently co-writing a book to support teacher development over time too but it hasn’t been edited yet so I daren’t say more than ‘Watch this space!!’

6. If you had to choose one CPD activity that you found most useful for your own CPD, what would it be and why?

I really like the activity that I call ‘The Professional Development Graph’

You take a nice big piece of paper and turn it horizontally or landscape. Then you sketch a professional life line from left to right across the paper. Perhaps the line starts low down, if you feel you didn’t know too much when you started. It might go up, like a side of a mountain, if you had a high point, and down into a dip when you had a low point. You can also show a plateau with a flat line and muddled sections of your career with spirals and doodles.

Then you add words or labels to explain the different points. For example, you might write ‘Horrible boss!’ next to a low point or ‘Class all passed exam’ next to a high point. You can decide how to subdivide the timeline for yourself: maybe bracket some years together with a light line, maybe show different teaching contexts in different colours, or mark focal concerns with stars or asterisks…whatever you fancy!

You end up with a sort of line graph, annotated with words and symbols. Towards the right-hand side of the page your line approaches your present. Does your line start to lift upwards as you feel positive about the future in the job? Or does it plateau or even drop as you feel a bit stuck or depressed in your work?

Turn the paper over and draw the future line as you would like to see it and note down what you think you will have to do to ensure that the line eventually represents what you want it to.

If you are a starter teacher or just in your first few years of teaching, then your professional graph may only take up part of a page. It is still useful to consider how the work has gone so far. How are you doing your best teacher learning? From watching colleagues at work? Reading (like Silvana)? Making and trying out new resources (like Debbie)? Going to conferences? Taking courses? Keeping a diary of critical incidents in your lessons and then looking back at the diary after a while to see if you can spot any patterns?

Whichever way you choose to use this Professional Development Graph idea, it is good fun to do this with a colleague or friend, to share your professional line graphs and to realise how far you have come, and how far you could go in this wonderful profession! Who knows, when you get to my age, you might turn around and realise that you have had a long career in ELT!

I hope you enjoy your work!

All good wishes

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview – Atanu

Our next ELT hero is Atanu Bhattacharya – a professor of English with 16 years of teaching experience and a special interest in the use of technology in teaching. Atanu has been looking at mobile literacy practices in language education and is currently working on a book project focusing on ICT and Language Teaching. He currently works with the Centre for English Studies, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar.


1. Tell us a little about your career in English language teaching (ELT).

I started my ELT career at H M Patel Institute of English in Anand accidentally in 1988. I had taught before that in Delhi and in Arunachal Pradesh. However, the earlier forays were mostly in literature. It was at H M Patel Institute that I encountered ELT in full force for the first time. Over the years, I picked up the basic principles and methods and started teaching courses that dealt with ELT, though right from the beginning, I was interested in technology and how it could be channelled for ELT pedagogy. In 2005-06, I visited the University of Warwick as a Hornby scholar and did a course in ELT and Multimedia. That set the course for my interest in technology and ELT. During these 16 odd years, I have thus been variously engaged in material production, testing and evaluation, and garnering the resources of web-based platforms/tools in English language teaching.

2. What are the main things to consider when a teacher is planning to use ICT for the first time in his or her lessons?

I think four things are essential and they can be put into four simple wh- forms:

What: Which part of the curriculum am I going to use ICT in (if it is curriculum based)? Or, which part of the curriculum am I going to supplement with ICT? In my experience, within the Indian testing and evaluation pattern, it is always good to keep the curriculum in mind while designing ICT-based activities. In other words, carefully thinking about what ICT activities I am going to integrate within the ambit of the curriculum is important.

How: How am I going to integrate it? Will this be a part of my evaluation? Will this be blended (face to face classroom interaction along with ICT-enabled activities) or is it going to be ‘standalone’ (for example, language lab based where students are engaged in self-study)? These are questions that are essential to ask when planning to use ICT.

When: At what point of time do I need to integrate ICT? This is crucial in some contexts especially in low resource / large, heterogeneous classrooms. For instance, if I need to test domain knowledge of the students, I can quickly set up a quiz on Hot Potatoes or Flubaroo which the students can access and use. If I am thinking of a longer intervention, I may have to think of other strategies.

Why: This is the most crucial aspect. I need to have a rationale for the use of ICT. For instance, I do not need to use ICT if the same goals may be achieved in a face-to-face classroom or without the use of technology. As a teacher, therefore, I need to make a conscious decision about the gaps that may be filled through ICT. Or, for that matter, how ICT can extend the goals of my teaching and the learning potential of my learners.

3. Does using ICT actually help improve learning in the classroom? How do you know?

The evidence on this is still trickling in and the answer may not be categorically ‘yes’ or ‘no’. A lot of research claims that this does so, while large-scale studies across various contexts have shown that there may not be a direct correlation between ICT-use and learning. However, there seems to be a consensus, more or less, across most studies in this area: ICT seems to have extended the learning capabilities of the students.

My own experience of ICT with my students has been extremely positive, though, as I have said in the Indian context, the use of ICT needs to be mapped with testing and evaluation since that seems to be a controlling factor in most schools and colleges. I would also suggest that small baby steps are more helpful. Large scale changes in the curricular framework with the introduction of ICT may not be very productive as compared to slow but steady introduction in institutions.

4. How can we convince head teachers, parents and officials on the benefits of using technology in the classroom?

Possibly by demonstrating the use of ICT. As I have said before, starting a small experiment in the institution (ideally in a collaborative framework between teachers), integrating ICT with the ‘regular’ classroom teaching, could be a great starting point. For example, starting a WebQuest with students across, let’s say science, English and social science, on a given topic may be a great way to start off ICT use. It would even be better if the teachers develop it within a small research framework and write up a report/paper that could be published on a blog/e-journal/school/college magazine. That would not only show that ICT is ‘doable’ but also ‘researchable’.

5. What are the benefits of using technology in the classroom?

Firstly, it extends learning beyond the classroom. There are many mobile-based platforms and social networking sites which can do this.

Secondly, technology is all around us. In all probability, our students would have access to some sort of technology either at home or at school. ICT use in the classroom thus reduces the distance between the ‘outside’ and the ‘inside’ bringing in the world within the classroom.

Thirdly, I think it is sometimes wrongly assumed that ICT use would always mean using a gadget or some cutting-edge device in the classroom. One of the features of today’s ICT is what is known as, ‘information overload’. Thus, bringing ICT in the classroom does not always mean ‘using’ ICT but how to critically deal with it. This definitely helps in critical thinking skills. No one can deny the fact that this can be best used in a world of internet information with more than one million sites available for every word that you type in!

Finally, one of the key things in today’s world is ‘learning to learn’. ICT definitely helps students (and teachers) to connect with the digital world outside the classroom. The key in the 21st century, I think, is to learn how to learn. I believe that ICT can help us do that.

6. How can we make sure that learners stay focused during lessons with technology and don’t play with the technology?

‘Playfulness’ is a part of technology. I think, as teachers, we must remember that none of the platforms/applications that our students might be using were originally meant for teaching-learning purposes (except for a few that were specifically designed for educational purposes). They were meant to communicate, network, share, and play with. If, as teachers, we can keep this in mind while designing ICT-enabled tasks for the classroom, then it would go a long way in re-designing our tasks. The question over here is not whether the students would play around with technology. The question, I think, should be whether we can build in this ‘playfulness’ (which was originally the part of technology) within the specific task that I am designing. If my ICT-based task is an exact replica of what I do in a face-to-face situation in the classroom, I am afraid, it may not work too well in ICT. We often see that students are ‘hooked to’ certain sites or networks. The challenge is whether we can build in that ‘hook’ within our tasks.

7. How can teachers with only limited access to technology use ICT in their lessons (e.g. with only one laptop/mobile)?

I will, with due apologies, move into anecdotal biography here. One of my earliest forays into technology was with a desktop computer (with a slow internet connection) in a class of 40. I was teaching them writing skills and wanted to integrate technology within the classroom. This was the year 2001 and Wikipedia had just been launched. Since Wikipedia had an editing function, one of the things that I started doing was downloading articles from Wikipedia and bringing them to the class for editing. The students would then edit the article (adding, deleting or correcting information) in the class, in groups, and then I would show them how to upload it on the respective page (this was really time-consuming in those days). The students definitely felt empowered after a few sessions. Later, I realised that this sense of achievement was not because of the editing that they had done. The editing could have been done in the classroom anyway. The sense of achievement instead came from their work being published on the web, especially when they had never ‘published’ anything before this.

To cut a long story short, technology does not necessarily mean ‘cutting-edge’ or ‘speed’. It largely depends on the wh-s that I have mentioned before and, of course, going the extra mile to integrate it. A word of caution – ICT use does mean devoting extra time since setting up a task can be time consuming. However, one of the flip sides of that is that once it is set up, with minor changes and tweaking, it can be used, over an extended period of time.

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview: Geetha Durairajan

This time in our #ELTHeroes series we’re talking to Geetha Durairajan. Geetha has been working as a Professor at the School of English Language Education, EFL University for more than 25 years. She is well known for her book titled ‘Assessing Learners: A Pedagogic Resource’. Her research interests include pedagogic evaluation and teaching English in grassroots multilingual contexts.


1.Tell us a little bit about your career in ELT.

Well, what do I say?  From a where and how long perspective, all my teaching has been at CIEFL/EFLU, starting as a lecturer in 1988, moving to a readership in 2004 and a professorship in 2010, all in the same department, (testing and evaluation).  So, I have more than 25 years of experience in teaching a range of courses in ELT. I teach courses at the post graduate and research level. However, I would rather describe my career as an experiential learning curve.  From a teacher who was strict and scared, who only wanted to finish teaching what she had planned to do, I have become someone who has understood that lesson plans have to be made, only to be dropped whenever needed. I have also come to realise that although we may teach the same thing to the whole class, what each student (or teacher in my case) takes away will be very different.

My big ‘moment’ was becoming the editor of a new series of teacher education books for SAARC country teachers titled All About Language Teaching, with Cambridge University Press. I have written the first book in the series. It is called: Assessing Learners: A Pedagogic Resource.

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Assessing learning’?

 This would be: 

  • Listen to your students. Listen to not just what they are saying, but metaphorically speaking, to their mental processes, to their struggles in trying to communicate. So how can one listen to students’ thoughts and processes? More often than not, we assess our students when they speak to us in class.  Whenever we do this, instead of just listening to what they are saying, if we pay a little attention to their body language, their facial expressions etc. we will know a lot about who is struggling to make meaning, and who finds it very easy.
  • We do need to read a wee bit and educate ourselves about assessing learning.
  • Evaluate and assess your students from their perspectives.  Ask yourself: Where are they now? How can we help them reach where they need to go?
  • Evaluate and assess with responsibility, like a caregiver or parent, and not as a tester and examiner with power.

3. What, in your opinion, are some of the best ways teachers can provide feedback on assessment to their learners?

I think feedback has to be given using a range of ways.

  • Most importantly, feedback begins with a smile when your students have attempted something difficult.  We often fail to encourage our students and value the attempts made.
  • If assessment refers to evaluating students’ responses (whether tests, or assignments) then feedback could be oral or written.  But we have to make the time to provide systematic and constructive feedback.  We may not have the time to write individual feedback comments on all responses when we have large classes, but we can always take down notes on common problems for our reference and do a feedback class after any test or examination.
  • During teaching and even after homework, if we take down notes and share feedback in class the next day, this informed discussion will go a long way, for it will be focused and pinpointed.

4. What three top tips do you have for teachers that can help them implement continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) of learners successfully in their classrooms?

 The three top tips would be:

  • trust yourself and your judgement of your students.
  • observe them and make notes, whenever you can, of what the learners are good at and what they need more help with.
  • keep the checklists to help you focus on the aspects you need to assess,. Also try and go beyond the checklists. Every day, close your eyes for two minutes, think of your students and ask yourself: Who learnt best today? Who needed most help? Make a note of your answers based on your intuitive feeling. Use these notes to inform your future teaching.

5. If you had a choice to transform one existing practice of assessing learners in Indian school system, what would it be and why?

I would remove the ‘timed one shot writing’ of closed book examinations that make them nothing more than a memory based reproduction or rather vomiting of pre-processed knowledge.  I would make ALL examinations open book so that the shift is from mere reproduction to problem solving.  We can then begin testing and assessing higher order skills.

6. What are some of the challenges that teachers might face while assessing learners in a mixed-ability classroom? How can they overcome these challenges?

The same criteria for assessment may not be applicable to all.  We might find that the same task itself may not be applicable to all.  If this is a teacher-made test, I would advise having a variety of questions with a mix of easy and difficult, but with suggestions to students about who should attempt what.  If it’s a public examination we do not have such a choice. Similarly, when evaluating, if I know my students, I comfortably evaluate using different criteria for different students.  I will not accept basic errors in accuracy from a student who is quite good, but if some student is struggling to write, I might ignore these errors and value the attempt made.

Share via email

#ELTHeroes interview: Debbie Candy

Next in our #ELTHeroes series, we’re talking to Debbie Candy – Debbie is a freelance consultant teacher trainer, materials writer and editor based in the UK. She has been writing materials for more than ten years and has been involved in writing most of the British Council’s global teacher training courses.

Debbie Candy

1. Tell us a little bit about your career in English language teaching (ELT).
Believe it or not, 30 years ago I was a pharmaceutical research chemist who wanted to travel the world. That meant doing something that would help me to travel. Teaching seemed the obvious option. I got a job as a science teacher in an international school in Cairo. Teaching science was easy, understanding what the learners were trying to say in English was much more of a challenge. So I took the CertTEFLA and got an evening job at International House teaching children. I loved it and soon did more English teaching than science. On coming back to the UK I became a Director of Studies for Pilgrims language courses working directly with some of the great teacher trainers like Mario Rinvolucri, Bonnie Tsai and Tessa Woodward; all prolific authors. It wasn’t long before I was training teachers and writing materials.

2. What advice do you have for teachers when they’re developing their skills and knowledge in the professional practice ‘Managing resources’?
I’ve just reread the details on the professional practice Managing resources. It is very comprehensive and every element is useful.

My advice would be to try out as many ideas in as many ways as possible. Always reflect on the effectiveness of the resource. Ask yourself these questions:

  • Did it help the learners to achieve the learning outcomes?
  • Was the effort put in worth it?
  • Was the way I used the resource the best or should I adapt my methodology?
  • Can I use it again, as it is, or slightly adapted?

Make sure that you make notes on the resource for next time. It might be a while before you use it again.

3. Given that teachers already have plenty to do, what top tips would you give teachers to help them to manage/create resources easily?
When we are new to teaching, I think we feel the pressure to have lots of resources for which we then spend too much time preparing. I remember those days of cutting and pasting pieces of paper well into the wee hours of the night. I do not have any of those resources now. However, all the basic ideas are in my head and I can draw on them to help me in the classroom at a moment’s notice.

My main tips would be:

  • start small and work your way up
  • reflect on everything you do, then keep the materials and use them again in a  different way
  • do not spend more time making the resource than you will use it in class.

Also … don’t reinvent the wheel! If you have something then adapt it rather than make a new one.

4. What suggestions do you have for teachers working in challenging situations where there are few or no resources?
Make full use of your most important resource: your learners. They can become the resource makers or the resource collectors in your classroom. The king of using learners to produce resources is Jon Taylor. He wrote a book called The Minimax Teacher published by Delta Publishing. Minimax stands for ‘Minimum preparation for maximum learning.’

Ask your learners to:

  • bring items in that you can build lessons around; a family photo, a treasured object or a common household item. These can all be used as the basis for stories, poems and presentations.
  • collect newspapers, magazines, recyclable materials and put them in a big box in your classroom. You can make puppets, masks, big books and other crafts that will generate an infinite amount of stories and dialogues.
  • draw or write something ready to use in the next lesson.

5. In what ways can teachers use the same resources for mixed-ability classes rather than creating resources for each level within the class?
This depends on the age of learners and what you mean by the ‘same’ resources. I believe in grading the task not always the material to a large degree but then this has some limitations. Have you heard of tiered activities? These are activities that allow a range of abilities within one group to be successful with the same text. So, for example, maybe you have a text in the course book which you need your learners to write but you think it is too difficult for many of the learners. Prepare two versions of the text. One which is a gapped text and one where some words are multiple choice. Read the text to the learners. The top third of the class will write every word, the next third will complete the gapped text and the lower third will circle the multiple choice answer. Everyone uses the same text but in a way that they are capable of achieving. You can then repeat the activity with the lowest third doing the gap fill, the middle group writing every word and the highest group doing the checking.

Another way is to use a dictogloss technique. Read the text to everyone two or three times. Every learner writes down as much as they can. Put three or four learners together and let them reconstruct the text. Each learner will have written a different part of the text and they can help each other reconstruct it, everyone contributing what they can.

6. What steps and guidelines would you suggest teachers should follow when they are writing/adapting materials for their own classrooms?

  • Be clear about the learning outcomes.
  • Ask yourself, ‘Do I really need to make a new resource?’
  • Think what you can use that will be minimum effort for maximum effective learning.
  • Remind yourself of the learning outcomes again.
  • Ask yourself what style of resource would best suit the given situation – a worksheet, a craft, a collaborative activity or maybe a role play?
  • Design the resource. Be minimalist, motivational and inclusive.
  • Try it out and ask the learners what they think.
  • Modify your resource, if needed, and share it.

7. What are some of the challenges teachers might face when they are writing/adapting materials? How can they overcome these challenges?
I think that you, the teacher, are usually the right person to adapt materials for your class. You are the person who knows the class best. However, you are not always the most skilled person at adapting or writing materials. The biggest challenge for many is where to start and what to adapt.

The question to ask always is – ‘Will this enable my learners to achieve their learning outcomes?’ If not, then adapt. Think about the simplest way to help them to achieve the learning outcomes. It may be that you don’t need a resource at all. If you do need a resource, keep it simple and think about what will motivate your learners to learn.

I also think that collaboration and sharing with other teachers and your learners is the key to great resources. We don’t do enough of it. Why would we want to spend time developing resources to then put them in a cupboard to rot? Don’t laugh, I’ve seen it far too many times. Share your efforts with others and encourage them to share their resources with you especially if you are using the same course books. Include your learners in the choice and design of resources. Be honest and tell them you are trying things out. Ask them what they thought about the resource or task.

I think that we, as teachers, sometimes see issues that are not always real. I often hear comments such as ‘my learners will not do that’ or ‘I can’t expect my learners to…’ These are barriers that teachers put in their own way. All I can say is that you’ll never know until you try.

Good luck with your materials writing. Collaboration and practice is the key.

Share via email