Tag Archives: Climate Change

End of one and a beginning to another!

20 January 2011

By Joanne Kotalawala, International Climate Champion, Srilanka

Day 6 of the ICC International Camp in Goa, many are filled with mixed emotions today as it is the final day of activities of the camp. Once again we begin the day early and head in to the coach for a somewhat different field-trip. Today we will explore nature by boat. We are heading out to visit the mangrove eco-systems of Goa and we were also visiting Cambarjua Canal, where we hoped to sight crocodiles, who are the keystone species in the mangrove ecosystem of Goa. We were privileged to be in the presence of Dr.Untawale and Dr. Borekar who are experts in these fields and were able to give us a great deal of information on these. We first visited the Mangrove ecosystems, where we first sited the white egrets dotting the green background of mangroves. Here we were able to observe the unique structural and biological nature of growth of the mangrove species. En route to the Cambarjua canal we made a stop at the Dr.Salim Ali Bird sanctuary, which is located along the edge of the mangrove forest. Along the way we observed birds such as Kingfisher, Eagle etc. Then it was a smooth ride to the Cambarjua canal, it did not take too much time to spot a crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) quietly basking in the muddy waters on the banks of the mangroves. It was truly amazing to observe a crocodile in its natural habitat. From here we headed back to ICG, where the groups made the final additions to the Goa declaration and prepared for their sessions with Sam Harvery, Director British Council, West India and also with David Viner, Head Climate programme, British Council, London. After this it was time for a lovely dinner, overlooking the beautiful beach of Goa.

By Abhishek Acharyya, International Climate Champion, India

When I touched down at the Kolkata Airport I ended a phenomenal journey which started from the same place a week back. In the last 7 days. I have learnt so much not just about the environemnetal isssues but about many more things. About life in different parts of the world, about environmental problems in different parts of the world. Also how they are tackling those. These 7 days of my life have been one of the best days of my life. There were many first in life in these 7 days. From flying to a live video conference and more. Even though I live so close to the Sunderbans I have never been able to go there. But thanks to British Council I have seen how estaurines ecosystem work. I think I should not write a lot about what happened when as it will take ages to explain and my climate buddies have already written about it.

But I would like to thank British Council for organising such a wonderful camp for all of us. In this world spinning out of control due to selfishness and conflicts we the young people of the world came together and worked for the same goal ‘a better future’. We may live thousands of miles, separated by seas, oceans and un- erasable lines. We might speak different languages, we may belong to different religions but we are one – we are Climate Champions. We are doing different kinds of works and in all these works I have a strong belief that we will contribute to a better world in the future.

The journey now we will begin will decide whether we will get to live in this world as humans, whether our young cousins will get to play in those fields where we used to play when we were young. Whether we will restore the dignity of our Mother Earth. And whether we will give the helm of affair of a better world to the coming gerenation. I wish you all a very best of luck and I strongly believe that we with our youth power will find answers to these questions.

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“Lizards of the sea” with “Horns of cattle in the mouth”

19th Jan 2011

By Abhishek Acharyya, International Climate Champion, India

Do you want to Know about the “Lizards of the sea” with “Horns of cattle in the mouth” or “Solar powered, Pulse stabilizer and tidal subsidizer”. If yes read on. It’s the 5th day of the 3rd International Camp of ICCs at Goa. Today we had a tight packed schedule first we had presentations by some of the Climate Champions. I gave a brief presentation on the Children’s Day event we organised at the Victoria Memorial, Kolkata and the special camp where I went to our neighbouring village. Then there was a lecture on the Forests of Goa by Shashi Kumar, followed by another educative session with Parag A. Rangnekar on butterflies of Goa. Some of us including me also bought a book by him on the same topic. After a brief break we had another round of presentation by other Climate Champions. Then Mr. Ajay Gramopadhye, a passionate wildlife photographer, environmentalist and our guide at the camp showed us some of the best wildlife pictures I’ve ever seen. Here I would also like to mention the kind of creative work our climate buddies Shenaz from Maldives have shown us of his country. It is sad that such a beautiful country like theirs will get wiped off the face of the earth if we don’t start solving our problems rather than creating more. Sunita our Climate Champion from Nepal showed us a documentary  she is working on, though half finished, it was very good. It is about the effects of climate change on women . It is true that climate change affects women in a much more profound way than men. We also had a great session with Dr. Untawale , who is always with us and is so  helpful solving all of ours queries all the time. He explained to us about mangroves today which filled in a lot of gaps in my knowledge. Finally two professors form the nearby Goa University told us about the botany and zoology of Goa, sealing in all the small gaps which might have been there. And they told us how mangrove and other ecosystem acts as the thing I wrote in the intro and how Portuguese described Crocodiles in Goa. But before we left for Old Goa, we had a lecture to catch by Ramesh Kumar, from NIO. He told us about the Monsoon and Climate Change. And answered all the left over questions which I had.

Finally we went to Old Goa and Panaji. There we went to a very old home. Being a History student it was the icing on the cake which thanks to British Council and especially to Sharlene I could eat. Therefore summing it up I guess it was the best day till now but I think I should say that yet as every time I say that British Council does something better. So I am eagerly waiting for tomorrow.

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Baghvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary


By Godwin, International Climate Champion, India
The Dry Evergreen and Semi Deciduous Forests still stand magnificently on the slopes of this part of the Western Ghats. The forests resembled a familiar structure of an upper canopy interlaced by several bird calls and streaks of colors formed by energetic birds evading eyes. The calls of the Malabar grey Hornbill Lower down, climbers, lianas, wild pepper, creepers, epiphytes and interactions such as the strangler figs on host trees were inter-spaced in the forests. Having re-charged themselves in the morning sun the variety of butterflies were out in hundreds congregating at shrubs and stream beds; appearing around us like fantastic happy forms fluttering all around. Concluding on one of the highlights of the forest at this period was the flowering of a plant belonging to a very special genii. Srobilanthes plants occur all over the Wesster Ghats and different species occur according to the diversity of the landscape. The strobilanthes plants flower only once in given period of time, which could range from 4 years to 24 years. If they flower whole masses of characteristically tubular shaped flowers colored usually in white, blue, lilac and even yellow. We were all very fortunate to witness the Strobilanthes sp. plants in flower. The flowering period of this particular species is not known though, however it is thought that haphazard flowering of these plants nowadays are an effect of climate change. Since the plants shrivel up and die once they have commenced flowering such changes put these unique and endangered plants in even more danger.

By A H Tehzeeb, International Climate Champion, Bangladesh
Today we had to start early as we were going to Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary which is almost like a dense forest. Experience of walking through the forest was really intense. We have witnessed quite some varieties of butterflies, different types of trees, also we learnt about the four types of forests in Goa. Then we went to the Goa zoo and witnessed different animals and their life style. We learnt about the breeding of animals in zoo that are in the danger of extinction.

Also how temperature of snake cages are kept normal, tolerable and also regarding their food habit. At late night we had a session about the situation of Antarctica due to climate change and also the condition of the species over there.

By Bipashyee Ghosh, International Climate Champion, India
It was about 10 o’clock in the morning that we reached the Bhagavan Mahaveer Wildlife sanctuary. The sight of the dense forest at a glance a very soothing and a gave great peace for our minds. As we proceeded through the forest, the variety of Flora of the mixed deciduous forest attracted me the most. We witnessed the deciduous varieties of Eupetorium, Crocodile Bark tree, The Naked lady etc- each with unique characteristics well described to us by the expert. Specially, witnessing the Western Ghats strobilenthes plants flowering was a rare opportunity for us. Among the fauna, we came to know about the Malabar Hornbills, Golden Backed Woodpicker, the Crested serpent Eagle, sunbirds etc, unique to this region. We got the chance to recognise various bird species through call,and a few rare moments to see them on flight. But the Butterfly conglomeration was a golden moment to witness, adding to the study of different species of Butterflies here in Western ghats. The trekking headed to a beautiful waterfall in the forests and ended by visiting a 700years old Tambri Surla Temple, right within the forest.
By Sikander Sabeer, International Climate Champion, Srilanka
After an inspiring day at the  National Institute of Oceanography and Goa Science Center , ICC’s were ready to enjoy an another productive and joyful day. After the breakfast we left to Tambli Surla Sanctuary. We enjoyed elegant and pure nature during the nature trail and observed different species/kinds of butterflies. 

First time in my life I saw a migrating butterfly colony gathered at a small place to enjoy the warmth of Goa. It was evident the importance of Goa in terms of biodiversity. We enjoyed the water flow of the stream, which passes through the forest, observed different kinds of butterflies, fish and insects. Though we didn’t forget to release our warmness of the body  by the cold and pure running stream. We didn’t  forget to visit the Hindu temple located in the sanctuary.

After the lunch we visited the Bondla zoological garden and  were able to refresh our knowledge on in-situ conservation. Later  headed to ICG. Had our dinner at the the usual spice restaurant and got ready for the reflection session, a suprise lecture was organized on Antarctic and climate change, Mr Deleep Deobagkar shared his experiences and latest research on Antarctic, the group reflection session took place before switching off lights for the day.


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By Preeti, International Climate Champion, India  and Madeline, International Climate Champion, USA

Our visits today:

The National Institute of Oceanography 

  1. Scientific proof of sea level rise needs to be communicated concisely and clearly to the general public, so that people realize that climate change is real and happening.
  2. In the presentation we wish that the topic of how climate change affects specific weather events in India, such as the Monsoon, was covered. 

University of Goa

  1. The teachers’ refresher course on climate change was a good concept. We hope that such courses are more frequent and wide spread, so that teachers are motivated to spread the message of the urgency.
  2. We desire that climate change science be made compulsory in school curriculum in the future.

Goa Science Center

  1. Promotion of cartoons to convey the importance of climate change to a diverse audience through mediums such as newspaper competitions, billboards, etc. 
  2. Exhibition of the British Council cartoons in other venues like slums, schools, and libraries would increase awareness.  

Anjuna Beach

  1. High pollution levels could be prevented by having presentations on the rich benthic biodiversity of the area for visiting tourists.  

By A H Tehzeeb, International Climate Champion, Bangladesh

Today we visited National Institute for Oceanography (NIO) and Goa Science centre. We really liked both the places. In NIO, we learnt lots of stuff regarding ocean and climate change. And in the Goa Science Centre, we have seen several scientific interesting projects. Also we witnessed quite a number of wonderful cartoons at Goa Science Centre about climate change. Then we went for a river cruise, which was really fun with all the entertainment. Like other days today ended with the review of what we have done throughout the day.

By Md. Muhib Kabir, International Climate Champion, Bangladesh

We  have passed our 3rd day in the camp. We went to the National Institute of Oceanography where we learned about the ocean science, impacts of climate change in ocean biodiversity and a lot more. Dr. Unnikrishnan took a session on sea level rising. He shared his knowledge with us, answered our questions. We were shocked to know that the net sea level raise of Diamond Harbor is 5.74 mm/yr. Land subsidence is the this area compared with other areas. After lunch we visited the Goa University where we learnt about how they are disseminating knowledge about environment, climate change to the teachers from different institutes. From the Goa University we went to the Goa Science Ccenter (GSC). We found the place very interesting. Theory of basic science was shown at GSC. Then we attended a cartoon exhibition there. The competition was arranged by British Council all over India. We found it more effective to raise awareness among the people. We watched a movie on climate change there. We went to a rocky beach where we learned about the effects of Climate Change on the marine Biodiversity. From GSC we went on a  river cruise, which was really enjoyable. We had great fun there. We returned back to ICG around 8.30 pm and had our dinner. After dinner we had our day’s reflection session where we made a chart highlighting the relation with climate change from the places we visited and supplied suggestions. That was end of the 3rd day of the camp.

By Joanne Kotalawala, International Climate Champion, Srilanka

Today was a more relaxed day and we started off at 9.30am which was late compared to our previous day’s schedule. Our first visit was to the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), which was just a short drive from the International Center, Goa (ICG).  At NIO the enthusiastic group of scientists eagerly shared with us the aspects of how the weather and monsoons are affected by ocean currents. They also shared with us how unusual phenomena have affected the weather conditions in the past (eg- El Nino) and the how these phenomena have impacted marine eco-systems. We then reported back to ICG where we were able to relax for awhile.
After lunch, we boarded the coach once again to visit Anjunam beach, where an NIO scientist was waiting to explain their research methods on benthic organisms. We were also privileged to observe gastropods which are commonly found in the area. From Anjunam beach we headed in to the Goa city to enjoy a cruise on the Mandovi river. Although the sunset cruise was missed, we were still able to enjoy the cruise on the lifeline of Goa, the Mandovi river. And thus ended Day 3 of the International Climate Champions Camp in Goa.

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Natures Treasures

16 January 2011
By Mark Bessen, International Climate Champion, USA 

Today was our first day of field trips at the Climate Camp in Goa. We started out driving to WilderNest, a nature preserve in the hills of Goa. On the drive there, we passed lush countrysides and lovely flowing rivers. Upon arrival at WilderNest, our first view was of a breathtaking waterfall. We then hiked around the preserve, observing the natural Goan flora and fauna, including a Green Vine Snake and a venomous Pit Viper.  WilderNest is fascinating in its role as a biodiversity hotspot, composed of three mail regions: West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests, West Coast Semi-Evergreen Forests, and Moist Deciduous Forests. 

From WilderNest we drove to an iron-mining site called Sesa Goa. The visit emphasized the efforts that Sesa Goa has made to reclaim devastated territory destroyed in the process of mining. The visit evoked mixed emotions in me. On one hand, it’s great that they are making some effort to minimize the impacts of mining. However, mining in and of itself is contaminating soils, polluting the air, and dramatically affecting the biodiversity of the region. Yes, Sesa Goa’s efforts are noble.  But change needs to be made with regard to international dependence on mining.  Witnessing the open pit style mine at Sesa Goa opened my eyes to one of the most concrete effects of humanity on the environment.

By A H Tehzeeb, International Climate Champion, Bangladesh 

We have passed the second day in Goa.This was really an interesting day with the morning session in the wilderness and afternoon in the mining pit. Then in the evening we went to the beach and had tons of fun over there. We also played a local versus ICC beach football match. At noon we had a session about music. I really liked that part in the wilderness. The place is really beautiful with so much artistic views and the research that is conducted there was really diverse. We have also seen a waste treatment plant. We have seen different types of species over there and how proper documentation are maintained to preserve the history of these species. Though mining reclamation in SESA Goa was interesting, most of us felt that we were shown only the positive parts of mining. How the local community is affected by mining was not shown to us. At the end, we had a discussion session about the progress of the whole day.

By Chathurangi De Silva, International Climate Champion, Srilanka

The first full day at camp started off with a bit of adventure. We boarded the buses after an early breakfast and headed off to Wildernest which was about two and a half hour drive from the International Centre. On the way we stopped at a dam close by, and were given an insight into the use of water/ rain fall etc. at Goa. After reaching Wildernest, we met Mr. Nirmal Kulkani who was a real wildlife enthusiast and we had the opportunity of having a closer look at Green Whip Snake and Malabar Pit Viper which turned out to be an interesting site for most of us. After that we made our way to the Sesa Goa Sanquelim mine and Reclamation Site. Here we saw the most amazing structure made out of pure bamboo. We had a lecture plus interaction session with Mr. Mahesh Patil followed by a scrumptious lunch as always. We were then taken to visit a herbal park and an active mining site as well.
Afterwards we headed back to ICG, where we had the most interesting session on ‘Spreading climate awareness through media and music’ by Mr. Chinmaya Dunster. After listening to some wonderful music and a truly unique experience on different ways in which we can influence people on the importance of climate change, the day ended with the much awaited buffet dinner followed by a short reflection session.

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A Great Green Start!

15 January 2011

The International Centre Goa (ICG) was abuzz with Climate Champions arriving from all over the world. Setting the scene was an orientation into the programme and the ‘do’s and don’ts’ of the camp. This was followed by a fun icebreaker where the group, many of whom were meeting for the first time got to know each other and their projects a little better. On a green note, each one in the group planted a sapling symbolizing the start of the camp. The formal inauguration which began at 7.00 in the evening was graced by the presence and encouraging words of Ms Nandini Sahai, Director ICG, Mr Dileep Deobagkar, Vice Chancellor Goa University and Charlie Walker, Director Programmes, British Council. The evening came to an end with some authentic Goan cuisine accompanied by some fabulous toe tapping Portuguese music.

What a great start to the camp!

By  Joanne, Chathurangi  &  Sikander, International Climate Champions, Srilanka

Our journey to the ICC International Camp began in the wee hours of the morning, with our flight scheduled to leave Colombo just a minute past mid-night. However, after encountering a delay of about 2 hours we finally left for Mumbai at 2:30am and reached our transit hotel at 6am sharp. Then it was a quick breakfast and we were off again to the domestic airport where we had to catch a connecting flight to Goa. We were welcomed at the airport from where it was a 45 minute drive to the International Center Goa, which will be our home for the next week. Once again, after a quick round of refreshments, we were able to take part in an ice-breaker event. Following this we attended the opening ceremony and press conference of the International Camp on Coastal Eco-systems Management. Following these formalities was dinner accompanied by a Portugese music display and a series of beautiful cultural dances. And thus ends day one of the International Camp.

Sri-Lankan representations signing off.

By A H Tehzeeb, International Climate Champion, Bangladesh

We woke up at 6.30 am took a bath and packed our bag. After finishing our breakfast we met Chetan Mehta from British Council. He traveled with us all the way to Goa. We reached Goa at around 3.00 pm. International Center Goa welcomed us. About 3.30 pm we were gathered in the conference room for the introduction session.

We went around the ICG and got a brief idea of the place. All of us planted a sapling each. After that we got 30 minutes to prepare ourselves for the inaugural session. We had our inaugural session at 7.00 pm. After that the dinner was served with Portuguese music. The music was really nice and we enjoyed it a lot.

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Third International Climate Champions Camp, Goa (15 to 21 January 2011)

As the curtains rise on the Third International Climate Champions Camp, 35 Climate Champions from 15 Countries (Northern Ireland, Ireland, UK, USA, Finland, Slovenia, Japan, Bangladesh, Norway, Sweden, Uganda, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka and India) will start arriving at Goa starting 15 January. At the camp, Champions will be exposed to various facets of the fragile ecosystem of Goa where they will learn, network, share and better understand environmental impacts due to climate change and current mitigating initiatives undertaken.

They will be interacting with scientific and social experts and will also be visiting scientific Institutions like the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and Goa Science Centre. Towards the end of the camp, they will pen down their views and suggestions in the form of a “Goa Declaration” which will be released to the media at the close of the camp.

Sharing their experiences and staying connected with the world they will be blogging and tweeting from the camp. We welcome you to be part of this experience by following them online.

Watch this space for more on the camp.


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The Cancun Agreement

My final blog post is going to a quick take on the outcome of the negotiations. On balance I think the negotiations were a success. However this is a very relative measure that is more a result of the abysmal failure of the Copenhagen round of negotiations and the feeling I had during the initial week of the conference that the entire process was on the edge of collapse.
Not taking away form the conference’s agreement I shall quickly go over what it included.
The central part of the agreement included points in the Copenhagen accord (that was never an official UNFCCC output as it was not accepted by “consensus” of all countries). One of these key carry-overs was the pledge of 100 billion US$ per year from developed to developing countries by 2020. This part of the text gives both sides something to hold onto. Developing countries like the entire money (The idea of money flowing into their coffers is always a good thing). The deal mentions that the money will be “mobilized” which hints at the us eof private setor capital as well (which developed countries like). The agreement mentions the creation of a fund through which some of the money will flow, this fund however will be independent at some level form the COP. This is a situation which gives something to all the stakeholders.
Another key part of the deal was an agreement on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). This includes extensive safeguards to make sure that indigenous forest dwellers are treated fairly. This was one of the major requests of the non-governmental stakeholders at of the process.
The final two parts of the agreement deal with technology transfer (which is extremely important for all developing countries especially India) and a new framework to deal with adaptation (another point that is very beneficial for Developing countries who are in many cases already facing the consequences of climate change). All these paper promises need to be implemented in the real world. Which is another astronomical difficulty – there is going to be a lot of load shifting between developed countries.
The Cancún agreement missed out some important topics. Moves towards a deal on shipping and aircraft fuels, unpopular with oil producers, fell out of the text. They took with them—quite unfairly—worthy proposals in nearby paragraphs for new work on agriculture, a greenhouse-gas emitter on a par with deforestation.
The big countries got the specific things that they were after. China wanted not to be blamed for a failure, as it was after Copenhagen. America wanted pledges made in that summit’s accord to be recognised, plus progress on verification.
So that is my analysis of what happened, and while this deal is alright from an environmental perspective the key is it si Amazing form a UNFCCC perspective. The agreement has kept the UNFCCC process alive and kicking, while walking on an extremely narrow tight-line between developed and developing countries. It is a massive achievement in raw diplomacy.

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Me at Cancun

I’m going to start this blog post with a summary of the people I have met, the events I have attended and what I have done. I shall start with the superficial. Over the last week I have met several “cool, famous” people. These have almost by definition been extremely short conversation. The first two people I met were The Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC secretariat, Christiana Figueres, and the President of the 16th Conference of the Parties (this one) Patricia Espinosa. This was at the initial party thrown by the Mexican Governemnt to, and was nothing more than an introduction and a quick photo.
On Wednesday, I happened to sit down for lunch at a table right next Dr Rajendra Pachauri. We had a quick chat about an uncle of mine he knows and what events he was going to be at COP16. The last was a meeting with Lord Stern, the author of the Stern report.
This meeting was set up by the British Council, and was a mind blowing experience. Six champions got to sit with lord Stern for over an hour discussing the current situation of the negotiations as well as our projects. Lord stern is the rare celebrity who is extremely grounded, well travelled and sparkling with intelligence. He gave all of us extremely relevant feedback about our projects and on many occasions whipped out old business cards he had collected, of people that he had met and who could have a direct impact on helping our projects.
The British Council also set up a virtual skype meeting with Champions from around the world. Champions from over 20 countries participated, and me and Ding (the Chinese champion) filled everyone in on what was happening and discussed International policy with the Champions for an hour.
My attitude to this entire COP was two-fold on one hand I wanted to help the Govt. delegation a s much a I possibly could, which I did consistently, on the other hand I wanted to use this as a 2 week Crash course on climate policy. I have always read a lot about climate policy, and tried to keep abreast with the latest policy proposals. At this COP with all the side events (events organized by different governments , research institutes and NGO’s) which literally had the who’s-who of climate policy speaking I had an opportunity to consilidate everything I knew and learn a lot more.
I sat in on events ranging from the role of the UN in climate negotiations to presentations of the most recent research papers on the Carbon Budget (the Idea that each country has a specific amount it is allowed to emit, which it should not exceed) . This was an amazing learning experience for me. The interesting part is that every single side event is available for free video streaming of the UNFCCC website (http://unfccc.int/) .

Regarding my work with the Indian Delegation, over the Summer I interned at the office of the minister at the with the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. As a result I knew a lot of people coming with the Indian delegation this year, and managed to get myself a role in the delegation, helping out in anyway I could. This was a very interesting experience and through this I got to meet several extremely interesting Indians. I met several young and enthusiastic Indian PhD and Masters students and older and extremely passionate scientists.

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The Debate

We were welcomed to the official meeting at Cancun with a party thrown by the Mexican Govt. on Monday night. The atmosphere was amazing. Last year the equivalents event organised by the Govt. of Denmark was full of Diplomats sipping Champagne slowly for 30 minutes before politely excusing themselves. The Mexican event  was a real party. Men on brought invited us in to a a beautiful open air venue which opened to the gulf of Mexico. The food was prepared by Mexico’s most famous Chef, and the bar served unlimited drinks of every imaginable sort. Most country delegations were present, as were the President of this years Conference as well as the head of the UNFCCC secretariat. The music was outstanding and everyone was relaxed.

It was difficult for me to be anything but optimistic. The negotiations on the first day had been relatively upbeat, and I was excited. Unlike COP15 I came into the process expecting absolutely nothing, since all the negotiators I had spoken to this time around have emphasised the focus on smaller scale technical matters this time around. It was a good night. Infact I have a picture somewhere (which I will certainly try and put up) of me with my arms around the two most important peole at the conference – the president and the head of the Secretariat! Which is no mean task given the approximately 1000 people there.

On to more serious news. The next day was a disaster. Japan stood up during the COP to say in very straight language (Which is extremely rare in conferences such as this one) that it would not sign any extension of the Kyoto Proposal until both the US and China agree to legally binding Carbon emission limits. I should not have been as surprised as I was – since they have hinting they would this for a while now, it was just the stark non-ambiguous language of the delegate that shocked me.  This leaves everyone in a bit of confusion. If the Kyoto protocol is not extended, the CDM mechanism that has brought billions of dollars to developing countries like India and China will be scrapped. If this happens it will be almost impossible to get developing countries to endorse a deal of any type.

Maybe this years conference will not be as successful as I believed in my slightly drunk state on Monday night. With Key countries like Canada and Australia furiously Backtracking on their already vague and unenforceable promises, and Japan promising not to do anything unless China and the US commit to legally enforceable Carbon emission reductions.

Is everything so black and white? Unfortunately, in my humble opinion, It probably will be near impossible to convince China to agree to legally binding emission reductions. Japans many domestic adaptation and mitigation actions have been forgotten, and Japans action is being used as scapegoate by countires like Canada and Australia, who are equally against a deal of any sort. This is a bleak statement. But is everything as bad as this seems? This is not the entire story.

For one thing there seems to be a deals on REDD (an international anti deforestation scheme) and a climate fund. These two vitally important points ,if agreed upon, could lead to a solid foundation for a more thorough deal at South Africa next year.

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